## Chapter 3Computer Arithmetic

We next turn our attention to a code for storing decimal integers. Since all storage in a computer is by means of on/oﬀ switches, we cannot simply store integers as decimal digits. Exercises 3-1 and 3-2 should convince you that it will take some thought to come up with a good code that uses simple on/oﬀ switches to represent decimal numbers.

Another very important issue when talking about computer arithmetic was pointed out in Section 2.3 (page 28). Namely, the programmer must decide how many bits will be used for storing the numbers before performing any arithmetic operations. This raises the possibility that some results will not ﬁt into the allocated number of bits. As you will see in Section 9.2 (page 607), the computer hardware provides for this possibility with the Carry Flag (CF) and Overﬂow Flag (OF) in the rflags register located in the CPU. Depending on what you intend the bit patterns to represent, either the Carry Flag or the Overﬂow Flag (not both) will indicate the correctness of the result. However, most high level languages, including C and C++, do not check the CF and OF after performing arithmetic operations.

### 3.1 Addition and Subtraction

Computers perform addition in the binary number system.1 The operation is really quite easy to understand if you recall all the details of performing addition in the decimal number system by hand. Since most people perform addition on a calculator these days, let us review all the steps required when doing it by hand. Consider two two-digit numbers, x = 67 and y = 79. Adding these by hand on paper would look something like:

 1 1 ←− carries 67 ←− x + 79 ←− y 46 ←− sum

We start by working from the right, adding the two decimal digits in the ones place. 7 + 9 exceeds 10 by 6. We show this by placing a 6 in the ones place in the sum and carrying a 1 to the tens place. Next we add the three decimal digits in the tens place, 1 (the carry into the tens place from the ones place) + 6 + 7. The sum of these three digits exceeds 10 by 4, which we show by placing a 4 in the tens place in the sum and recording the fact that there is an ultimate carry of one. Recall that we had decided to use only two digits, so there is no hundreds place. Using the notation of Equation 2.5 (page 24), we describe addition of two decimal integers in Algorithm 3.1.

Algorithm 3.1: Add ﬁxed-width decimal integers; N digits. (Refer to Equation 2.5).
1:  carry 0
2:  for i = 0 to N do i-th bit
3:   sumi (xi + yi + carry) % 10 mod operation
4:   carry (xi + yi + carry) ∕ 10 div operation
5:  end for

Notice that:

• Algorithm 3.1 works because we use a positional notation when writing numbers — a digit one place to the left counts ten times more.
• Carry from the current position one place to the left is always 0 or 1.
• The reason we use 10 in the / and % operations is that there are exactly ten digits in the decimal number system : 0, 1, 2, …, 9.
• Since we are working in an N-digit system, we must restrict our result to N digits. The ﬁnal carry (0 or 1) must be stated in addition to the N-digit result.

By changing “10” to “2" we get Algorithm 3.2 for addition in the binary number system. The only diﬀerence is that a digit one place to the left counts two times more.

Algorithm 3.2: Add ﬁxed-width binary integers; N bits. (Refer to Equation 2.6).
1:  carry 0
2:  for i = 0 to N do i-th bit
3:   sumi (xi + yi + carry) % 2 mod operation
4:   carry (xi + yi + carry) ∕ 2 div operation
5:  end for

Example 3-a ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Compute the sum of x = 10101011 and y = 11001101.

Solution:

 0 0001 111 ←− carries 1010 1011 ←− x + 0100 1101 ←− y 1111 1000 ←− sum

This is how the algorithm was applied.

 one s place:

 sum0 = (1 + 1) % 2 = 0

 carry = (1 + 1) / 2 = 1

 twos place:

 sum1 = (1 + 1 + 0) % 2 = 0

 carry = (1 + 1 + 0) / 2 = 1

 fours place:

 sum2 = (1 + 0 + 1) % 2 = 0

 carry = (1 + 0 + 1) / 2 = 1

 eights place:

 sum3 = (1 + 1 + 1) % 2 = 1

 carry = (1 + 1 + 1) / 2 = 1

 sixteens place:

 sum4 = (1 + 0 + 0) % 2 = 1

 carry = (1 + 0 + 0) / 2 = 0

 thirty-twos place:

 sum5 = (0 + 1 + 0) % 2 = 1

 carry = (0 + 1 + 0) / 2 = 0

 sixty-fours place:

 sum6 = (0 + 0 + 0) % 2 = 1

 carry = (0 + 0 + 0) / 2 = 0

 one hundred twenty-eights place:

 sum7 = (0 + 1 + 0) % 2 = 1

 carry = (0 + 1 + 0) / 2 = 0

In this eight-bit example the result is 1111 1000, and there is no carry beyond the eight bits. The lack of carry is recorded in the rflags register by setting the CF bit to zero.

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It should not surprise you that this algorithm also works for hexadecimal. In fact, it works for any radix, as shown in Algorithm 3.3.

Algorithm 3.3: Add ﬁxed-width integers in any radix; N digits. (Refer to Equation 2.5).
1:  carry 0
2:  for i = 0 to N 1 do i-th digit
3:   sumi (xi + yi + carry) % radix mod operation
4:   carry (xi + yi + carry) ∕ radix div operation
5:  end for

For hexadecimal:

• A digit one place to the left counts sixteen times more.
• We use 16 in the / and % operations because there are sixteen digits in the hexadecimal number system: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, a, b, c, d, e, f.

Addition in hexadecimal brings up a notational issue. For example,

d + 9 = ??   Oops, how do we write this?

Although it is certainly possible to perform all the computations using hexadecimal notation, most people ﬁnd it a little awkward. After you have memorized Table 3.1 it is much easier to :

• convert the (hexadecimal) digit to its equivalent decimal value
• apply our algorithm
• convert the results back to hexadecimal

Actually, we did this when applying the algorithm to binary addition. Since the conversion of binary digits to decimal digits is trivial, you probably did not think about it. But the conversion of hexadecimal digits to decimal is not as trivial. To see how it works, ﬁrst recall that the conversion from hexadecimal to binary is straightforward. (You should have memorized Table 2.1 by now.) So we will consider conversion from binary to decimal.

As mentioned above, the relative position of each bit has signiﬁcance. The rightmost bit represents the ones place, the next one to the left the fours place, then the eights place, etc. In other words, each bit represents 2n, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3,... and we start from the right. So the binary number 1011 represents:

 (3.1)

This is easily converted to decimal by simply working out the arithmetic in decimal:

 (3.2)

From Table 2.1 on page 18 we see that 10112 = b16, and we conclude that b16 = 1110. We can add a “decimal” column to the table, giving Table 3.1.

 Four binary digits (bits) One hexadecimal digit Decimal equivalent 0000 0 0 0001 1 1 0010 2 2 0011 3 3 0100 4 4 0101 5 5 0110 6 6 0111 7 7 1000 8 8 1001 9 9 1010 a 10 1011 b 11 1100 c 12 1101 d 13 1110 e 14 1111 f 15

Table 3.1: Correspondence between binary, hexadecimal, and unsigned decimal values for the hexadecimal digits.

Example 3-b ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Compute the sum of x = 0xabcd and y = 0x6089.

Solution:

 1 011 ←− carries abcd ←− x + 6089 ←− y 0c56 ←− sum

Now we can see how Algorithm 3.3 with radix = 16 was applied in order to add the hexadecimal numbers, abcd and 6089. Having memorized Table 3.1, we will convert between hexadecimal and decimal “in our heads.”

 one s place:

 sum0 = (d + 9) % 16 = 6

 carry = (d + 9) / 16 = 1

 sixteens place:

 sum1 = (1 + c + 8) % 16 = 5

 carry = (1 + c + 8) / 16 = 1

 two hundred ﬁfty-sixes place:

 sum2 = (1 + b + 0) % 16 = c

 carry = (1 + b + 0) / 16 = 0

 four thousand ninety-sixes place:

 sum3 = (0 + a + 6) % 16 = 0

 carry = (0 + a + 6) / 16 = 1

This four-digit example has an ultimate carry of 1, which is recorded in the rflags register by setting the CF to one. The arithmetic was performed by ﬁrst converting each digit to decimal. It is then a simple matter to convert each decimal value back to hexadecimal (see Table 3.1) to express the ﬁnal answer in hexadecimal.

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Let us now turn to the subtraction operation. As you recall from subtraction in the decimal number system, you must sometimes borrow from the next higher-order digit in the minuend. This is shown in Algorithm 3.4.

Algorithm 3.4: Subtract ﬁxed-width unsigned integers in any radix; N digits. (Refer to Equation 2.5).
1:  borrow 0
2:  for i = 0 to N 1 do i-th digit
3:   if yi xi then subtract Y from X
4:   differencei (xi yi)
5:   else if i = N 1 then
6:   borrow 1 Result will be wrong!
7:   xi xi + radix
8:   differencei (xi yi)
9:   else
10:   j i + 1
11:   while xj = 0 do
12:   j j + 1
13:   end while
14:   xj xj 1
15:   j j 1
16:   while j > i do
17:   xj xj + radix 1
18:   j j 1
19:   end while
20:   differencei (radix + xi yi)
21:   end if
22:  end for

This algorithm is not as complicated as it ﬁrst looks.

Example 3-c ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Subtract y = 10101011 from x = 11001101.

Solution:

 0 0100 010 ←− borrows 1100 1101 ←− x - 1010 1011 ←− y 0010 0010 ←− diﬀerence

The bits have been grouped to improve readability. Each number (0 or 1) in the borrows row shows the intermediate borrow that came from the minuend in that place, which becomes 2 in the next place to the right. A 1 indicates that borrow was required from this bit position, a 0 indicates no borrow. This is how the algorithm was applied.

 one s place:

 diﬀerence0 = 1 - 1 = 0

 twos place:

 Borrow from the fours place in the minuend.

 The borrow becomes 2 in the twos place.

 diﬀerence1 2 - 1 = 1

 fours place:

 Since we borrowed 1 from here, the minuend has a 0 left.

 diﬀerence2 = 0 - 0 = 0

 eights place:

 diﬀerence3 = 1 - 1 = 0

 sixteens place:

 diﬀerence4 = 0 - 0 = 0

 thirty-twos place:

 Borrow from the sixty-fours place in the minuend.

 The borrow becomes 2 in the thirty-twos place.

 diﬀerence5 = 2 - 1 = 1

 sixty-fours place:

 Since we borrowed 1 from here, the minuend has a 0 left.

 diﬀerence6 = 0 - 0 = 0

 one hundred twenty-eights place:

 diﬀerence7 = 1 - 1 = 0

_______________________________________________________________________________

This, of course, also works for hexadecimal, but remember that a digit one place to the left counts sixteen times more. For example, consider x = 0x6089 and y = 0xab5d:

 1 101 ←− borrows 6089 ←− x - ab5d ←− y b52c ←− sum

Notice in this second example that we had to borrow from “beyond the width” of the two values. That is, the two values are each sixteen bits wide, and the result must also be sixteen bits. Whether there is borrow “from outside” to the high-order digit is recorded in the CF of the rflags register whenever a subtract operation is performed:

• no borrow from outside CF = 0
• borrow from outside CF = 1

Another way to state this is for unsigned numbers:

• if the subtrahend is equal to or less than the minuend the CF is set to zero
• if the subtrahend is larger than the minuend the CF bit is set to one

### 3.2 Arithmetic Errors — Unsigned Integers

The binary number system was introduced in Section 2.2 (page 23). You undoubtedly realize by now that it probably is a good system for storing unsigned integers. Don’t forget that it does not matter whether we think of the integers as being in decimal, hexadecimal, or binary since they are mathematically equivalent. If we are going to store integers this way, we need to consider the arithmetic properties of addition and subtraction in the binary number system. Since a computer performs arithmetic in binary (see footnote 1 on page 66), we might ask whether addition yields arithmetically correct results when representing decimal numbers in the binary number system. We will use four-bit values to simplify the discussion. Consider addition of the two numbers:

 01002 = 0 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 0 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 4 10 + 00102 = 0 ×23+ 0 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = + 2 10 01102 = 0 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 6 10

and CF = 0.

So far, the binary number system looks reasonable. Let’s try two larger four-bit numbers:

 01002 = 0 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 0 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 4 10 + 11102 = 1 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = +14 10 00102 = 0 ×23+ 0 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 2 10

and CF = 1. The result, 2, is arithmetically incorrect. The problem here is that the addition has produced carry beyond the fourth bit. Since this is not taken into account in the result, the answer is wrong.

Now consider subtraction of the two numbers:

 01002 = 0 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 0 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 4 10 - 11102 = 1 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = -14 10 01102 = 0 ×23+ 1 ×22+ 1 ×21+ 0 ×20 = 6 10

and CF = 1.

The result, 6, is arithmetically incorrect. The problem in this case is that the subtraction has had to borrow from beyond the fourth bit. Since this is not taken into account in the result, the answer is wrong.

From the discussion in Section 3.1 (page 66) you should be able to convince yourself that these four-bit arithmetic examples generalize to any size arithmetic performed by the computer. After adding two numbers, the Carry Flag will always be set to zero if there is no ultimate carry, or it will be set to one if there is ultimate carry. Subtraction will set the Carry Flag to zero if no borrow from the “outside” is required, or one if borrow is required. These examples illustrate the principle:

• When adding or subtracting two unsigned integers, the result is arithmetically correct if and only if the Carry Flag (CF) is set to zero.

It is important to realize that the CF and OF bits in the rflags register are always set to the appropriate value, 0 or 1, each time an addition or subtraction is performed by the CPU. In particular, the CPU will not ignore the CF when there is no carry, it will actively set the CF to zero.

### 3.3 Arithmetic Errors — Signed Integers

When representing signed decimal integers we have to use one bit for the sign. We might be tempted to simply use the highest-order bit for this purpose. Let us say that 0 means + and 1 means -. We will try adding (+2) and (-2):

 00102 = (+2)10 + 10102 = + (-2)10 11002 = (-4)10

The result, -4, is arithmetically incorrect. We should note here that the problem is the way in which the computer does addition — it performs binary addition on the bit patterns that in themselves have no inherent meaning. There are computers that use this particular code for storing signed decimal integers. They have a special “signed add” instruction. By the way, notice that such computers have both a +0 and a -0!

Most computers, including the x86, use another code for representing signed decimal integers — the two’s complement code. To see how this code works, we start with an example using the decimal number system.

Say that you have a cassette player and wish to represent both positive and negative positions on the tape. It would make sense to somehow fast-forward the tape to its center and call that point “zero.” Most cassette players have a four decimal digit counter that represents tape position. The counter, of course, does not give actual tape position, but a “coded” representation of the tape position. Since we wish to call the center of the tape “zero,” we push the counter reset button to set it to 0000.

Now, moving the tape forward — the positive direction — will cause the counter to increment. And moving the tape backward — the negative direction — will cause the counter to decrement. In particular, if we start at zero and move to “+1” the “code” on the tape counter will show 0001. On the other hand, if we start at zero and move to “-1” the “code” on the tape counter will show 9999.

Using our tape code system to perform the arithmetic in the previous example — (+2) + (-2):

1. Move the tape to (+2); the counter shows 0002.
2. Add (-2) by decrementing the tape counter by two.

The counter shows 0000, which is 0 according to our code.

Next we will perform the same arithmetic starting with (-2), then adding (+2):

1. Move the tape to (-2); the counter shows 9998.
2. Add (+2) by incrementing the tape counter by two.

The counter shows 0000, but there is a carry. (9998 + 2 = 0000 with carry = 1.) If we ignore the carry, the answer is correct. This example illustrates the principle:

• When adding two signed integers in the two’s complement notation, carry is irrelevant.

The two’s complement code uses this pattern for representing signed decimal integers in bit patterns. The correspondence between signed decimal (two’s complement), hexadecimal, and binary for four-bit values is shown in Table 3.2.

 Four binary digits (bits) One hexadecimal digit Decimal equivalent 1000 8 -8 1001 9 -7 1010 a -6 1011 b -5 1100 c -4 1101 d -3 1110 e -2 1111 f -1 0000 0 0 0001 1 1 0010 2 2 0011 3 3 0100 4 4 0101 5 5 0110 6 6 0111 7 7

Table 3.2: Four-bit signed integers, two’s complement notation.

We make the following observations about Table 3.2:

• The high-order bit of each positive number is 0.
• The high-order bit of each negative number is 1.
• However, changing the sign of (negating) a number is more complicated than simply changing the high-order bit.
• The code allows for one more negative number than positive numbers.
• The range of integers, x, that can be represented in this code (with four bits) is  (3.3)

or

 (3.4)

The last observation can be generalized for n bits to:

 (3.5)

In the two’s complement code, the negative of any integer, x, is deﬁned as

 (3.6)

Notice that 2n written in binary is “1” followed by n zeros. That is, it requires n+1 bits to represent. Another way of saying this is, “in the n-bit two’s complement code adding a number to its negative produces n zeros and carry.”

We now derive a method for computing the negative of a number in the two’s complement code. Solving Equation 3.6 for x, we get:

 (3.7)

For example, if we wish to compute -1 in binary (in the two’s complement code) in 8 bits, we perform the arithmetic:

 (3.8)

or in hexadecimal:

 (3.9)

This subtraction is error prone, so let’s perform a few algebraic manipulations on Equation 3.7, which deﬁnes the negation operation. First, we subtract one from both sides:

 (3.10)

Rearranging a little:

 (3.11)

Now, consider the quantity (2n 1). Since 2n is written in binary as one (1) followed by n zeros, (2n 1) is written as n ones. For example, for n = 8:

 (3.12)

Thus, we can express the right-hand side of Equation 3.11 as

 (3.13)

where 1111112 designates n ones.

You can see how easy the subtraction on the right-hand side of Equation 3.13 is if we consider the previous example of computing -1 in binary in eight bits. Let x = 1, giving:

 (3.14)

or in hexadecimal:

 (3.15)

Another (simpler) way to look at this is

 (3.16)

The value of the right-hand side of Equation 3.16 is called the reduced radix complement of x. Since the radix is two, it is common to call this the one’s complement of x. From Equation 3.11 we see that this computation — the reduced radix complement of x — gives

 (3.17)

Now we can easily compute -x by adding one to both sides of Equation 3.17:

 (3.18)

This leads us to Algorithm 3.5 for negating any integer stored in the two’s complement, n-bit code.

Algorithm 3.5: Negate an integer in binary (compute 2’s complement).
1:  Take the complement of x. (Flip all the bits.)
2:  Add one to the result.

This process — computing the one’s complement, then adding one — is called computing the two’s complement.

Be Careful!
• “In two’s complement” describes the storage code.
• “Taking the two’s complement” is an active computation. If the value the computation is applied to an integer stored in the two’s complement notation, this computation is mathematically equivalent to negating the number.

Combining Algorithm 3.5 with observations about Table 3.2 above, we can easily compute the decimal equivalent of any integer stored in the two’s complement notation by applying Algorithm 3.6.

Algorithm 3.6: Signed binary-to-decimal conversion.
1:  if high-order bit is zero then
2:   Compute the decimal equivalent of the number.
3:  else
4:   Take the two’s complement (negate the number).
5:   Compute the decimal equivalent of this result.
6:   Place a minus sign in front of the decimal equivalent.
7:  end if

Example 3-d ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The 16-bit integer 567816  is stored in two’s complement notation. Convert it to a signed, decimal integer.

Solution:

Since the high-order bit is zero, we simply compute the decimal equivalent:

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-e ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

The 16-bit integer 876516 is stored in two’s complement notation. Convert it to a signed, decimal integer.

Solution:

Since the high-order bit is one, we ﬁrst negate the number in the two’s complement format.
Take the one’s complement.

Add one.

Place a minus sign in front of the number (since we negated it in the two’s complement domain).

__________________________________________________________________________________

Algorithm 3.7 shows how to convert a signed decimal number to two’s complement binary.

Algorithm 3.7: Signed decimal-to-binary conversion.
1:  if the number is positive then
2:   Simply convert it to binary.
3:  else
4:   Negate the number.
5:   Convert the result to binary.
6:   Compute the two’s comlement of the result in the binary domain.
7:  end if

Example 3-f ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Convert the signed, decimal integer +31693 to a 16-bit integer in two’s complement notation. Give the answer in hexadecimal.

Solution:

Since this is a positive number, we simply convert it. The answer is to be given in hexadecimal, so we will repetitively divide by 16 to get the answer.

So the answer is

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-g ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Convert the signed, decimal integer -250 to a 16-bit integer in two’s complement notation. Give the answer in hexadecimal.

Solution:

Since this is a negative number, we ﬁrst negate it, giving +250. Then we convert this value. The answer is to be given in hexadecimal, so we will repetitively divide by 16 to get the answer.

This gives us

Now we take the one’s complement:

And add one:

So the answer is:

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### 3.4 Overﬂow and Signed Decimal Integers

The number of bits used to represent a value is determined at the time a program is written. So when performing arithmetic operations we cannot simply add more digits (bits) if the result is too large, as we can do on paper. You saw in Section 3.1 (page 66) that the CF indicates when the sum of two unsigned integers exceeds the number of bits allocated to it.

In Section 3.3 (page 87) you saw that carry is irrelevant when working with signed integers. You also saw that adding two signed numbers can produce an incorrect result. That is, the sum may exceed the range of values that can be represented in the allocated number of bits.

The ﬂags register, rflags, provides a bit, the Overﬂow Flag (OF), for detecting whether the sum of two n-bit, signed numbers stored in the two’s complement code has exceeded the range allocated for it. Each operation that aﬀects the overﬂow ﬂag sets the bit equal to the exclusive or of the carry into the highest-order bit of the operands and the ultimate carry. For example, when adding the two 8-bit numbers, 1516 and 6f16, we get:

 carry −→ 0 1 ←− penultimate carry 0001 0101 ←− x + 0110 1111 ←− y 1000 0100 ←− sum

In this example, there is a carry of zero and a penultimate (next to last) carry of one. The OF ﬂag is equal to the exclusive or of carry and penultimate carry:

 (3.19)

where ‘^’ is the exclusive or operator. In the above example

 OF = 0 ^ 1 = 1 (3.20)

There are three cases when adding two numbers:

Case 1: The two numbers are of opposite sign.
We will let x be the negative number and y the positive number. Then we can express x and y in binary as:

 x = 1… y = 0…

That is, the high-order bit of one number is 1 and the high-order bit of the other is 0, regardless of what the other bits are. Now, if we add x and y, there are two possible results with respect to carry:

1. If the penultimate carry is zero:

 carry −→ 0 0 ←− penultimate carry 0 … ←− x + 1 … ←− y 1 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 0 0 = 0.

2. If the penultimate carry is one:

 carry −→ 1 1 ←− penultimate carry 0 … ←− x + 1 … ←− y 0 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 1 1 = 0.

We conclude that adding two integers of opposite sign always yields 0 for the overﬂow ﬂag.

Next, notice that since y is positive and x negative:

 0 ≤ y ≤ +(2(n−1) − 1) (3.21) − 2(n−1) ≤ x < 0 (3.22)

Adding inequalities (3.21) and (3.22), we get:

 (3.23)

Thus, the sum of two integers of opposite sign remains within the range of signed integers, and there is no overﬂow (OF = 0).

Case 2: Both numbers are positive.
Since both are positive, we can express x and y in binary as:

 x = 0… y = 0…

That is, the high-order bit is 0, regardless of what the other bits are. Now, if we add x and y, there are two possible results with respect to carry:

1. If the penultimate carry is zero:

 carry −→ 0 0 ←− penultimate carry 0 … ←− x + 0 … ←− y 0 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 0 0 = 0. The high-order bit of the sum is zero, so it is a positive number, and the sum is within range.

2. If the penultimate carry is one:

 carry −→ 0 1 ←− penultimate carry 0 … ←− x + 0 … ←− y 1 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 0 1 = 1. The high-order bit of the sum is one, so it is a negative number. Adding two positive numbers cannot yield a negative sum, so this sum has exceeded the allocated range.

Case 3: Both numbers are negative.
Since both are negative, we can express x and y in binary as:

 x = 1… y = 1…

That is, the high-order bit is 1, regardless of what the other bits are. Now, if we add x and y, there are two possible results with respect to carry:

1. If the penultimate carry is zero:

 carry −→ 1 0 ←− penultimate carry 1 … ←− x + 1 … ←− y 0 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 1 0 = 1. The high-order bit of the sum is zero, so it is a positive number. Adding two negative numbers cannot yield a negative sum, so this sum has exceeded the allocated range.

2. If the penultimate carry is one:

 carry −→ 1 1 ←− penultimate carry 1 … ←− x + 1 … ←− y 1 … ←− sum

this addition would produce OF = 1 1 = 0. The high-order bit of the sum is one, so it is a negative number, and the sum is within range.

#### 3.4.1 The Meaning of CF and OF

These results, together with the results from Section 3.2 (page 86), yield the following rules when adding or subtraction two n-bit integers:

• If your algorithm treats the result as unsigned, the Carry Flag (CF) is zero if and only if the result is within the n-bit range; OF is irrelevant.
• If your algorithm treats the result as signed (using the two’s complement code), the Overﬂow Flag (OF)  is zero if and only if the result is within the n-bit range; CF is irrelevant.

The CPU does not consider integers as either signed or unsigned. Both the CF and OF are set according to the rules of binary arithmetic by each arithmetic operation. The distinction between signed and unsigned is completely determined by the program. After each addition or subtraction operation the program should check the state of the CF for unsigned integers or the OF of signed integers and at least indicate when the sum is in error. Most high-level languages do not perform this check, which can lead to some obscure program bugs.

Be Careful! Do not to confuse positive signed numbers with unsigned numbers. The range for unsigned 32-bit integers is 0 – 4294967295, and for signed 32-bit integers the range is -2147483648 – +2147483647.

The codes used for both unsigned integers and signed integers are circular in nature. That is, for a given number of bits, each code “wraps around.” This can be seen pictorially in the “Decoder Ring” shown in Figure 3.1 for three-bit numbers.

Example 3-h ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using the “Decoder Ring” (Figure 3.1), add the unsigned integers 3 + 4.

Solution:

Working only in the inner ring, start at the tic mark for 3, which corresponds to the bit pattern 011. The bit pattern corresponding to 4 is 100, which is four tic marks CW from zero. So move four tic marks CW from the 3 tic mark. This places us at the tic mark labeled 111, which corresponds to 7. Since we did not reach the tic mark at the top of the Decoder Ring, CF = 0. Thus, the result is correct.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-i _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using the “Decoder Ring” (Figure 3.1), add the unsigned integers 5 + 6.

Solution:

Working only in the inner ring, start at the tic mark for 5, which corresponds to the bit pattern 101. The bit pattern corresponding to 6 is 110, which is six tic marks CW from zero. So move six tic marks CW from the 5 tic mark. This places us at the tic mark labeled 011, which corresponds to 3. Since we have reached the tic mark at the top of the Decoder Ring, CF = 1. Thus, the result is incorrect.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-j _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using the “Decoder Ring” (Figure 3.1), add the signed integers (+1) + (+2).

Solution:

Working only in the outer ring, start at the tic mark for +1, which corresponds to the bit pattern 001. The bit pattern corresponding to +2 is 010, which is two tic marks CW from zero. So move two tic marks CW from the +1 tic mark. This places us at the tic mark labeled 011, which corresponds to +3. Since we did not reach the tic mark at the bottom of the Decoder Ring, OF = 0. Thus, the result is correct.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-k ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using the “Decoder Ring” (Figure 3.1), add the signed integers (+3) + (-4).

Solution:

Working only in the outer ring, start at the tic mark for +3, which corresponds to the bit pattern 011. The bit pattern corresponding to -4 is 100, which is four tic marks CCW from zero. So move four tic marks CCW from the +3 tic mark. This places us at the tic mark labeled 111, which corresponds to -1. Since we did not reach the tic mark at the bottom of the Decoder Ring, OF = 0. Thus, the result is correct.

__________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3-l _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using the “Decoder Ring” (Figure 3.1), add the signed integers (+3) + (+1).

Solution:

Working only in the outer ring, start at the tic mark for +3, which corresponds to the bit pattern 011. The bit pattern corresponding to +1 is 001, which is one tic mark CW from zero. So move one tic mark CW from the +3 tic mark. This places us at the tic mark labeled 100, which corresponds to -4. Since we reached the tic mark at the bottom of the Decoder Ring, OF = 1. Thus, the result is incorrect.

__________________________________________________________________________________

### 3.5 C/C++ Basic Data Types

High-level languages provide some basic data types. For example, C/C++ provides int, char, float, etc. The sizes of some data types are shown in Table 3.3.

 Data type 32-bit mode 64-bit mode char 8 8 int 32 32 long 32 64 long long 64 64 float 32 32 double 64 64 *any 32 64

Table 3.3: Sizes (in bits) of some C/C++ data types in 32-bit and 64-bit modes. The size of a long depends on the mode. Pointers (addresses) are 32 bits in 32-bit mode and can be 32 or 64 bits in 64-bit mode.

The sizes given in this table are taken from the System V Application Binary Interface speciﬁcations, reference [33] for 32-bit and reference [25] for 64-bit, and are used by the gcc compiler for the x86-64 architecture. Language speciﬁcations tend to be more permissive in order to accommodate other hardware architectures. For example, see reference [10] for the speciﬁcations for C.

A given “real world” value can usually be represented in more than one data type. For example, most people would think of “123” as representing “one hundred twenty-three.” This value could be stored in a computer in int format or as a text string. An int in our C/C++ environment is stored in 32 bits, and the bit pattern would be

0x0000007b

As a C-style text string, it would also require four bytes of memory, but their bit patterns would be

0x31 0x32 0x33 0x00

The int format is easier to use in arithmetic and logical expressions, but the interface with the outside world through the screen and the keyboard uses the char format. If a user entered 123 from the keyboard, the operating system would read the individual characters, each in char format. The text string must be converted to int format. After the numbers are manipulated, the result must be converted from the int format to char format for display on the screen.

C programmers use functions in the stdio library and C++ programmers use functions in the iostream library to do these conversions between the int and char formats. For example, the C code sequence

scanf("%i", &x);
x += 100;
printf("%i", x);

or the C++ code sequence

cin >> x;
x += 100;
cout << x;

• reads characters from the keyboard and converts the character sequence into the corresponding int format.
• adds 100 to the int.
• converts the resulting int into a character sequence and displays it on the screen.

The C or C++ I/O library functions in the code segments above do the necessary conversions between character sequences and the int storage format. However, once the conversion is performed, they ultimately call the read system call function to read bytes from the keyboard and the write system call function to write bytes to the screen. As shown in Figure 3.2, an application program can call the read and write functions directly to transfer bytes.

When using the read and write system call functions for I/O, it is the programmer’s responsibility to do the conversions between the char type used for I/O and the storage formats used within the program. We will soon be writing our own functions in assembly language to convert between the character format used for screen display and keyboard input, and the internal storage format of integers in the binary number system. The purpose of writing our own functions is to gain a thorough understanding of how data is represented internally in the computer.

Aside: If the numerical data are used primarily for display, with few arithmetic operations, it makes more sense to store numerical data in character format. Indeed, this is done in many business data processing environments. But this makes arithmetic operation more complicated.

#### 3.5.1 C/C++ Shift Operations

Since our primary goal here is to study storage formats, we will concentrate on bit patterns. We will develop a program in C that allows a user to enter bit patterns in hexadecimal. The program will read the characters from the keyboard in ASCII code and convert them into the corresponding int storage format as shown in Algorithm 3.8. This conversion algorithm involves manipulating data at the bit level.

Algorithm 3.8: Read hexadecimal value from keyboard.
1:  x 0
2:  Read character from keyboard
3:  while more characters do
4:   x x shifted left four bit positions
5:   y new character converted to an int
6:   x x + y
7:   Read character from keyboard
8:  end while

Let us examine this algorithm. Each character read from the keyboard represents a hexadecimal digit. That is, each character is one of ‘0’, …,‘9’,‘a’, …,‘f’. (We assume that the user does not make mistakes.) Since a hexadecimal digit represents four bits, we need to shift the accumulated integer four bits to the left in order to make room for the new four-bit value.

You should recognize that shifting an integer four bits to the left multiplies it by 16. As you will see in Sections 12.3 and 12.4 (pages 760 and 777), multiplication and division are complicated operations, and they can take a great deal of processor time. Using left/right shifts to eﬀect multiplication/division by powers of two is very eﬃcient. More importantly, the four-bit shift is more natural in this application.

The C/C++ operator for shifting bits to the left is «.2 For example, if x is an int, the statement

x = x << 4;

shifts the value in x four bits to the left, thus multiplying it by sixteen. Similarly, the C/C++ operator for shifting bits to the right is ». For example, if x is an int, the statement

x = x >> 3;

shifts the value in x three bits to the right, thus dividing it by eight. Note that the three right-most bits are lost, so this is an integer div operation. The program in Listing 3.1 illustrates the use of the C shift operators to multiply and divide by powers of two.

1/*
2 * mulDiv.c
3 * Asks user to enter an integer. Then prompts user to enter
4 * a power of two to multiply the integer, then another power
5 * of two to divide. Assumes that user does not request more
6 * than 30 as the power of 2.
7 * Bob Plantz - 4 June 2009
8 */
9
10#include <stdio.h>
11
12int main(void)
13{
14    int x;
15    int leftShift, rightShift;
16
17    printf("Enter an integer: ");
18    scanf("%i", &x);
19
20    printf("Multiply by two raised to the power: ");
21    scanf("%i", &leftShift);
22    printf("%i x %i = %i\n", x, 1 << leftShift, x << leftShift);
23
24    printf("Divide by two raised to the power: ");
25    scanf("%i", &rightShift);
26    printf("%i / %i = %i\n", x, 1 << rightShift, x >> rightShift);
27
28    return 0;
29}
Listing 3.1: Shifting to multiply and divide by powers of two.

#### 3.5.2 C/C++ Bit Operations

We begin by reviewing the C/C++ bitwise logical operators,

 and & or | exclusive or ^ complement ∼

It is easy to see what each of these operators does by using truth tables. To illustrate how truth tables work, consider the algorithm for binary addition. In Section 3.1 (page 66) we saw that the ith bit in the result is the sum of the ith bit of one number plus the ith bit of the other number plus the carry produced from adding the (i-1)th bits. This sum will produce a carry of zero or one. In other words, a bit adder has three inputs — the two corresponding bits from the two numbers being added and the carry from the previous bit addition — and two outputs — the result and the carry. In a truth table we have a column for each input and each output. Then we write down all possible input bit combinations and then show the output(s) in the corresponding row. A truth table for the bit addition operation is shown in Figure 3.3. We use the notation x[i] to represent the ith bit in the variable x; x[i-j] would specify bits i through j.

 x[i] y[i] carry[(i-1)] z[i] carry[i] 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

Figure 3.3: Truth table for adding two bits with carry from a previous bit addition. x[i] is the ith bit of x; carry[(i-1)] is the carry from adding the (i-1)th bits.

The bitwise logical operators act on the corresponding bits of two operands as shown in Figure 3.4.

 and
 x[i] y[i] x[i] & y[i] 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
 inclusive or
 x[i] y[i] x[i] | y[i] 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
 exclusive or
 x[i] y[i] x[i] ^ y[i] 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
 complement
 x[i] ∼x[i] 0 1 1 0

Figure 3.4: Truth tables showing bitwise C/C++ operations. x[i] is the ith bit in the variable x.

Example 3-m _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Let int x = 0x1234abcd. Compute the and, or, and xor with 0xdcba4321.

Solution:

x & 0xdcba4321 = 0x10300301
x | 0xdcba4321 = 0xdebeebed
x ^ 0xdcba4321 = 0xce8ee8ec

__________________________________________________________________________________

Make sure that you distinguish these bitwise logical operators from the C/C++ logical operators, &&, ||, and !. The logical operators work on groups of bits organized into integral data types rather than individual bits. For comparison, the truth tables for the C/C++ logical operators are shown in Figure 3.5

 and
 x y x && y 0 0 0 0 non-zero 0 non-zero 0 0 non-zero non-zero 1
 or
 x y x || y 0 0 0 0 non-zero 1 non-zero 0 1 non-zero non-zero 1
 complement
 x !x 0 1 non-zero 0

Figure 3.5: Truth tables showing C/C++ logical operations. x and y are variables of integral data type.

#### 3.5.3 C/C++ Data Type Conversions

Now we are prepared to see how we can convert from the ASCII character code to the int format. The & operator works very nicely for the conversion. If a numeric character is stored in the char variable aChar, from Table 3.4 we see that the required operation is

aChar = aChar & 0x0f;

 Hex character ASCII code Corresponding int 0 0011 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1 0011 0001 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 2 0011 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0010 3 0011 0011 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011 4 0011 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 5 0011 0101 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0101 6 0011 0110 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0110 7 0011 0111 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0111 8 0011 1000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1000 9 0011 1001 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1001 a 0110 0001 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1010 b 0110 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1011 c 0110 0011 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1100 d 0110 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1101 e 0110 0101 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1110 f 0110 0110 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1111

Table 3.4: Hexadecimal characters and corresponding int. Note the change in pattern from ‘9’ to ‘a’.

Well, we still have an 8-bit value (with the four high-order bits zero), but we will work on this in a moment.

Next consider the alphabetic hexadecimal digits in Table 3.4. This table shows only the lower-case alphabetic characters, but you saw in Table 2.3 that the low-order four bits are the same for both upper- and lower-case alphbetic characters. We can use the same & operation to obtain these four bits, then add 9 to the result:

aChar = 0x09 + (aChar & 0x0f);

Conversion from the 8-bit char type to the 32-bit int type is accomplished by a type cast in C.

The resulting program is shown in Listing 3.2. Notice that we use the printf function to display the resulting stored value, both in hexadecimal and decimal. The conversion from stored int format to hexadecimal display is left as an exercise (Exercise 3-13).

1/*
2 * convertHex.c
3 * Asks user to enter a number in hexadecimal
4 * then echoes it in hexadecimal and in decimal.
5 * Assumes that user does not make mistakes.
6 * Bob Plantz - 4 June 2009
7 */
8
9#include <stdio.h>
10#include <unistd.h>
11
12int main(void)
13{
14    int x;
15    unsigned char aChar;
16
17    printf("Enter an integer in hexadecimal: ");
18    fflush(stdout);
19
20    x = 0;                           // initialize result
21    read(STDIN_FILENO, &aChar, 1);   // get first character
22    while (aChar != \n)            // look for return key
23    {
24        x = x << 4;                  // make room for next four bits
25        if (aChar <= 9)
26        {
27            x = x + (int)(aChar & 0x0f);
28        }
29        else
30        {
31            aChar = aChar & 0x0f;
32            aChar = aChar + 9;
33            x = x + (int)aChar;
34        }
35        read(STDIN_FILENO, &aChar, 1);
36    }
37
38    printf("You entered %#010x = %i (decimal)\n\n", x, x);
39
40    return 0;
41}
Listing 3.2: Reading hexadecimal values from keyboard.

### 3.6 Other Codes

Thus far in this chapter we have used the binary number system to represent numerical values. It is an eﬃcient code in the sense that each of the 2n bit patterns represents a value. On the other hand, there are some limitations in the code. We will explore some other codes in this section.

#### 3.6.1 BCD Code

One limitation of using the binary number system is that a decimal number must be converted to binary before storing or performing arithmetic operations on it. And binary numbers must be converted to decimal for most real-world display purposes.

The Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) code is a code for individual decimal digits. Since there are ten decimal digits, the code must use four bits for each digit. The BCD code is shown in Table 3.5.

 Decimal digit BCD code (four bits) 0 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011 4 0100 5 0101 6 0110 7 0111 8 1000 9 1001

Table 3.5: BCD code for the decimal digits.

For example, in a 16-bit storage location the decimal number 1234 would be stored in the BCD code as

0001 0010 0011 0100          # BCD

and in binary as

0000 0100 1101 0010          # binary

From Table 3.5 we can see that six bit patterns are “wasted.” The eﬀect of this ineﬃciency is that a 16-bit storage location has a range of 0 – 9999 if we use BCD, but the range is 0 – 65535 if we use binary.

BCD is important in specialized systems that deal primarily with numerical data. There are I/O devices that deal directly with numbers in BCD without converting to/from a character code, for example, ASCII. The COBOL programming language supports a packed BCD format where two BCD characters are stored in each 8-bit byte. The last (4-bit) digit is used to store the sign of the number as shown in Table 3.6. The speciﬁc codes used depend upon the particular implementation.

 Sign BCD code (four bits) + 1010 - 1011 + 1100 - 1101 + 1110 unsigned 1111

Table 3.6: Sign codes for packed BCD.

#### 3.6.2 Gray Code

One of the problems with both the binary and BCD codes is that the diﬀerence between two adjacent values often requires that more than one bit be changed. For example, three bits must be changed when incrementing from 3 to 4 — 0011 to 0100. If the value is read during the time when the bits are being switched there may be an error. This is more apt to occur if the bits are implemented with, say, mechanical switches instead of electronic. The Gray code is one where there is only one bit that diﬀers between any two adjacent values. As you will see in Section 4.3, this property also allows for a very useful visual tool for simplifying Boolean algebra expressions.

The Gray code is easily constructed. Start with one bit:

 decimal Gray code 0 0 1 1

To add a bit, ﬁrst duplicate the existing pattern, but reﬂected:

 Gray code 0 1 1 0

then add a zero to the beginning of each of the original bit patterns and a 1 to each of the reﬂected ones:

 decimal Gray code 0 00 1 01 2 11 3 10

Let us repeat these two steps to add another bit. Reﬂect the pattern:

 Gray code 00 01 11 10 10 11 01 00

then add a zero to the beginning of each of the original bit patterns and a 1 to each of the reﬂected ones:

 decimal Gray code 0 000 1 001 2 011 3 010 4 110 5 111 6 101 7 100

The Gray code for four bits is shown in Table 3.7. Notice that the pattern of only changing one bit between adjacent values also holds when the bit pattern “wraps around.” That is, only one bit is changed when going from the highest value (15 for four bits) to the lowest (0).

 Decimal Gray code 0 0000 1 0001 2 0011 3 0010 4 0110 5 0111 6 0101 7 0100 8 1100 9 1101 10 1111 11 1110 12 1010 13 1011 14 1001 15 1000

Table 3.7: Gray code for 4 bits.

### 3.7 Exercises

3-1

3.1) How many bits are required to store a single decimal digit?

3-2

3.1) Using the answer from Exercise 1, invent a code for storing eight decimal digits in a thirty-two bit register. Using your new code, does binary addition produce the correct results?

3-3

3.3) Select several pairs of signed integers from Table 3.2, convert each to binary using the table, perform the binary addition, and check the results. Does this code always work?

3-4

3.3) If you did not select them in Exercise 3, add +4 and +5 using the four-bit, two’s complement code (from Table 3.2). What answer do you get?

3-5

3.3) If you did not select them in Exercise 3, add -4 and -5 using the four-bit, two’s complement code (from Table 3.2). What answer do you get?

3-6

3.3) Select any positive integer from Table 3.2. Add the binary representation for the positive value to the binary representation for the negative value. What is the four-bit result? What is the value of the CF? The OF? If you do the addition “on paper” (that is, you can use as many digits as you wish), how could you express, in English, the result of adding the positive representation of an integer to its negative representation in the two’s complement notation? The negative representation to the positive representation? Which two integers do not have a representation of the opposite sign?

3-7

3.3) The following 8-bit hexadecimal values are stored in two’s complement format. What are the equivalent signed decimal numbers?

a) 55 b) aa c) f0 d) 0f e) 80 f) 63 g) 7b

3-8

3.3) The following 16-bit hexadecimal values are stored in two’s complement format. What are the equivalent signed decimal numbers?

a) 1234 b) edcc c) fedc d) 07d0 e) 8000 f) 0400 g) ffff h) 782f

3-9

3.3) Show how each of the following signed, decimal integers would be stored in 8-bit two’s complement format. Give your answer in hexadecimal.

a) 100 b) -1 c) -10 d) 88 e) 127 f) -16 g) -32 h) -128

3-10

3.3) Show how each of the following signed, decimal integers would be stored in 16-bit two’s complement format. Give your answer in hexadecimal.

a) 1024 b) -1024 c) -1 d) 32767 e) -256 f) -32768 g) -32767 h) -128

3-11

3.4) Perform binary addition of the following pairs of 8-bit numbers (shown in hexadecimal) and indicate whether your result is “right” or “wrong.” First treat them as unsigned values, then as signed values (stored in two’s complement format). Thus, you will have two “right/wrong” answers for each sum. Note that the computer performs only one addition, setting both the CF and OF according to the results of the addition. It is up to the program to test the appropriate ﬂag depending on whether the numbers are being considered as unsigned or signed in the program.

a) 55 + aa b) 55 + f0 c) 80 + 7b d) 63 + 7b e) 0f + ff f) 80 + 80

3-12

3.4, 3.5) Perform binary addition of the following pairs of 16-bit numbers (shown in hexadecimal) and indicate whether your result is “right” or “wrong.” First treat them as unsigned values, then as signed values (stored in two’s complement format). Thus, you will have two “right/wrong” answers for each sum. Note that the computer performs only one addition, setting both the CF and OF according to the results of the addition. It is up to the program to test the appropriate ﬂag depending on whether the numbers are being considered as unsigned or signed in the program.

a) 1234 + edcc b) 1234 + fedc c) 8000 + 8000 d) 0400 + ffff e) 07d0 + 782f f) 8000 + ffff

3-13

3.5) Enter the program in Listing 3.1 and get it to work. Use the program to compute 1 (one) multiplied by 2 raised to the 31st power. What result do you get for 1 (one) multiplied by 2 raised to the 32nd power? Explain the results.

3-14

3.5) Write a C program that prompts the user to enter a hexadecimal value, multiplies it by ten, then displays the result in hexadecimal. Your main function should

a)

declare a char array,

b)

call the readLn function to read from the keyboard,

c)

call a function to convert the input text string to an int,

d)

multiply the int by ten,

e)

call a function to convert the int to its corresponding hexadecimal text string,

f)

call writeStr to display the resulting hexadecimal text string.

Use the readLn and writeStr functions from Exercise 2 -32 to read from the keyboard and display on the screen. Place the functions to perform the conversions in separate ﬁles. Hint: review Figure 3.2.

3-15

3.5) Write a C program that prompts the user to enter a binary value, multiplies it by ten, then displays the result in binary. (“Binary” here means that the user communicates with the program in ones and zeros.) Your main function should

a)

declare a char array,

b)

call the readLn function to read from the keyboard,

c)

call a function to convert the input text string to an int,

d)

multiply the int by ten,

e)

call a function to convert the int to its corresponding binary text string,

f)

call writeStr to display the resulting binary text string.

Use the readLn and writeStr functions from Exercise 2 -32 to read from the keyboard and display on the screen. Your functions to convert from a binary text string to an int and back should be placed in separate functions.

3-16

3.5) Write a C program that prompts the user to enter unsigned decimal integer, multiplies it by ten, then displays the result in binary. (“Binary” here means that the user communicates with the program in ones and zeros.) Your main function should

a)

declare a char array,

b)

call the readLn function to read from the keyboard,

c)

call a function to convert the input text string to an int,

d)

multiply the int by ten,

e)

call a function to convert the int to its corresponding decimal text string,

f)

call writeStr to display the resulting decimal text string.

Use the readLn and writeStr functions from Exercise 2 -32 to read from the keyboard and display on the screen. Your function to convert from a decimal text string to an int should be placed in a separate function. Hint: this problem cannot be solved by simply shifting bit patterns. Think carefully about the mathematical equivalence of shifting bit patterns left or right.

3-17

3.5) Modify the program in Exercise 3-16 so that it works with signed decimal integers.