In this chapter, we begin exploring how data is encoded for storage in memory and write some programs in C to explore these concepts. One way to look at a modern computer is that it is made up of:
Billions of two-state switches. Each of the switches is always in one state or the other, and it stays in that state until the control unit changes its state or the power is turned off.
A control unit that can:
Detect the state of each switch.
Change the state of that switch and/or other switches.
There is also provision for communicating with the world outside the computer—input and output.